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stitute of Bioinformatics. Populati▓on: 15 millionMajor area of distribution: GuangxiLanguage: ZhuangReligion: PolytheismThe Zhuangs ethnic minority is China's la▓rgest minority group. Its population of 15.55 million approaches that of Australia. Most of▓ the Zhuangs live in southwest China's Guan▓gxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, which is nearly the size of New Zealand. The rest have settled in Yunnan, Guangdong, ▓Guizhou and Hunan provinces.While most Zhuang communities concentrate in a compact area in Guangxi, the others are scattered over places shared by

groups such as Han, Yao,▓ Miao, Dong, Mulao, Maonan and Shui.Lying in Guangxi's mountainous regions, the Zhuang area is high in the northwest, undulating in the middle and low in the southeast. Limestone is widely distribute▓d in the area, which is known round the world for i▓ts karst topography. Many rocky peaks rise straight▓ up from the ground, and the peaks hide numerous fascin▓ating grottoes and subterranean rivers▓. Guilin, a tourist attraction in Guangxi, is an excellent example of such landscape. As the saying goes: "The landscape at Guilin is the best on earth; and the lands▓cape at Yangshuo is the best in Guilin." Wuming, Jingxi and Lingyun counties are also known for their ▓scenic splendours.Crisscrossing rivers endow the Zhuang▓ area with plentiful sources of water for irrigation, navigation and hydropower. The coast▓line in south Guangxi not only has important ports but also yields many valuable marine products includi▓ng the best pearls in China.The Zhuang area enjoys a mild▓ climate with an average annual temperatur▓e of 20 degrees centigrade, being warm in winter and sweltering in summer in the south. Plants are ▓always green, blossoming in all seasons. Abundant rainfall nurtures tropical and subtro▓pical crops such as rice, yam, corn,▓ sugar cane, banana, longan, litchi, pineapple, shadd▓ock and mango. The mountains in southw▓est and northwest Guangxi abound in Liuzhou f▓ir, silver fir and camphor trees, rare elsewh▓ere. Mineral resources include iron, coal, wolfram, gold, copper, tin, manganese, aluminum,▓ stibium, zinc and petroleum. The area is also rich in tung oil, tea, tea oil, mushroom, Chinese cinn▓amon, pseudo-ginseng, Chinese gecko (used in traditional Chinese medicine to help regain ▓vitality), fennal and fennal essence. The last four items are the Zhuang area's special products.China´;s dairy farmers cry for help over spilt milkby Xinhua writer Fu Shuangqi and Cao Guochang SHIJI▓AZHUANG, Sept. 21 (Xinhua) -- On the outskirts of Nantongye village, a huge yogu▓rt plant is under construction. It is planned that i▓t may take all fresh milk produced by more than 3,000 c▓ows raised by one third of the village households. The p▓lant owner is the Sanlu Group, whose baby formula was f▓ound containing the toxic chemical melamin▓e that caused more than6,200 children nationwide to have▓ kidney stones. Dairy farmers at Nantongye village were long-term suppliers to Sanlu, the biggest dairy producer in northern Hebei P▓rovince and nationwide, though villagers say they did not sign contracts wit▓h the company. The company built five stations in the v▓illage to collect freshmilk, but since last Sunday it has stopped buying from farmers as all S▓anlu plants have been suspended from produ▓ction since the scandal was revealed. Most farmers ▓raise cows in small farms covering not much more than a courtyard. Li Zhidong's 18 cows produce about 160 kg of milk a day. In the past week, her earnings have dropped by 330 yuan (48.5 U.S. dollars) a day. "I gave away the milk to family, friends and neighbors. Some feed it to their pigs. The rest I pour into the sewer," says Li, 56, who manage▓s the farm with her husband. "All good milk. It's such▓ a waste." She has stopped feeding the cattle concentrat▓ed feed, giving them hay. Now they produce▓ less milk each day. "I have no choice but to cut costs," she says. "If the cows stop producing, it will take at least 10 months for them to give milk again.▓" Usually Li and her neighbors herd their cattle to a nea▓rby milking station, where tankers ▓collect the fresh milk and carry itto the plants. "We did not add anything bad in the milk. We never even had the opportuni▓ty," Li says. "Those bad guys have put all of us in ▓trouble." Some of the 378 milk statio▓ns supplying Sanlu are like those i▓n Nantongye village, directly run by the company itself, and others are owned by middlemen or big dairy▓ farms. Ankole Kingdom was abolished in 1967 by President Milton Obote along with other kingdoms in Ugand▓a. It is located in South Western Uganda in the greater districts of Bushenyi, Mbarara and Ntun▓gamo. The Kingdom has been in existence for the past 600 hundred years, so it is regarded a▓s the oldest kingdom in Uganda's history.Catching a close-up view of Uganda's oldest "Ankole Kingdom"Catching a close-up view of Uganda's oldest "Ankole Kingdom"06-27-2018 11:31 BJTBy Timothy Sibasi, f▓eature writer based in Kampala, UgandaAnk▓ole Kingdom was abolished in 1967 by President Milton Obote along with other kingdoms in Uganda. It is▓ located in South Western Uganda in the greater districts of Bushenyi, Mbarara and Ntungamo. The Kingdom has been in existence for the past 600▓ hundred years, so it is regarded as the oldes▓t kingdom in Uganda's history.History and OriginsEstablished in the 15th Century, Ankole kingdom was originally known as Kaaro-Karungi and the word Nkore is said to have been adopted during the 17th Century following the devastating invasion of Kaaro-Karungi by Chawaali, the then O▓mukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara kingdom, which was o▓ne of the most powerful kingdoms in East Africa from the 16th to 19th Centuries.On October 25, 190▓1 the word Ankole was introduced by British colon▓ial administrators to describe the bigger kingdom, which was▓ formed by adding to the original Nkore, the former independent kingdoms of Igara, Sheema, Buhweju and parts of▓ Mpororo by the signing of the Ankole agreement.Before the abolition of monarchies in Uganda in 196▓6, Ankole kingdom was ruled by Omugabe "King" with supreme powers. The king was entitled to all the ti▓tles, dignities, and supremacy that were attached to his office under the laws and customs ▓of Ankole. A political relationship based on serfdom, s▓lavery, and client ship ceased to exist under British rule, and Bairu "Agriculturalists▓" became less marginalized and despised.The two groups retained their separate identities through▓ rules prohibiting intermarriage and, when such marriages occurred, making them invalid.The Hima provid▓ed cattle products that otherwise would not have been available to Iru farmers. Since the Hima po▓pulation was much smaller than Iru population, gifts and tributes demanded by the Hima could be ▓supplied easily. These factors probabl▓y made Hima-Iru relations tolerable, but they were nonetheless reinforced by the superior military organization and training of the Hima.Marriage and Family▓In Ankole Kingdom, by the time girls turned eight or nine, particularly among the Bahima "herds men," preparations for marriage began. The▓y were no longer free to run and play w▓ithout discipline. Girls were mostly kept in▓doors, where they ate beef and millet porridge and were forced to drink milk in large quantities so they would become fat.Being fat is associated with beauty and drinking milk is believe▓d to contribute to one's beauty. As soon as a girl's b▓reasts emerge, she is warned by her parents to abstain from sexual activities. Pregnancy outside marriage was punished by death or expulsion from the home.A Munyankole f▓ather, occasionally assisted by his relatives, is obliged to get a wife for his son by paying the required bride-wealth, which consists of two cows, three goats, and some pots of beer among▓ Bairu "Agriculturalists", among Bahima "herdsmen" it may range from two to twenty cows, depending on how wealthy a person is.A marriage may ▓be arranged by the couple's parents, or the boy may propose to the girl during adolescence. Once the bride-price has been paid, preparations for the▓ wedding begin.On the wedding day the bride'▓s father slaughters a bull for a feast. Other f▓orms of food and considerable amount of beer are prepa▓red for feasting at the bride's home.▓ This is followed by another feast at the bridegroom's home, where the marriage is consummated. ▓At the wedding ceremony the girl's aunt confirms that the groom is potent and ▓the bride defended her virginity before th▓e marriage was consummated.A social distincti▓on between Bahima "herdsmen" and Bairu "Agriculturalists" was established by prohibiting intermarriage between the▓m. The Bahima who in this case are herdsmen would find it repugnant to marry a Mwiru who is an agric▓ulturalist.Moreover, it was illegal for a Muhima to give cattle to a Mwiru. A Mwiru would have no cattle for bride-wealth for a Muhima ▓wife since all he had was unproductive cows and bull calves. Cattle were essential not only for the legitimacy of marriage but for the legitimacy of the children born out of a marital relationship.A woman with no children has no status among the▓ Banyankole -- people in Ankole kingdom, and m▓ost women wish to marry and raise many children. If a woman is unable to bear children,▓ her husband is likely to contemplate taking on a second wife.Monogamy was the standard practice, though po▓lygamy was not prohibited. Both the Mugabe "King" and wealthy Banyankole practiced polygamy. Today monog▓amy remains the predominant form of marriage, influenced by Westernization, Christianity, educa▓tion, and the traditional Banyankole model.Death and▓ AfterlifeAmong the Banyankole, illness is not▓ considered a natural cause of death; therefore, such deaths▓ require an investigation to find a responsible p▓arty. By contrast, old age is accepted as a suff▓icient cause for death. It is held that God allows old people to die after the completi▓on of their time on earth. The Banyankole view death as ▓a passage to another world.When a man di▓es, every relative, along with friends and neighbors, is informed. A person who fail▓s to attend the funeral without a good reason may b▓e suspected of being associated with the person's▓ death.Before burial, the body is washed and eyes a▓re closed. As the deceased is placed ▓in the grave, the right hand is placed under the head▓ while the left hand rests on the chest. The body lies on the right side. One or more cows are slaughtered to feed everyone pres▓ent. Beer is provided as part of the mourning. The mo▓urning goes on for four days. A deceased woman is tre▓ated in a similar manner except that in▓ the grave she is made to lie on the left side as if she w▓ere facing her husband. Her left hand is placed under her head, while her right hand▓ rests on her chest.(The opinions expressed here do n▓ot necessarily reflect the opinions of Panview or CC▓ )Please scan the QR Code to follow us▓ on InstagramPlease scan the QR Code to follow us on WechatIrish gov´t claims no public h▓ealth concernIrish officials have confirmed that cattle at three farms had tested positive▓ for dioxin, the cancer-causing chemical that has contamin▓ated its pork industry. But they insist▓ the country's beef poses no real risk to health.Ireland has already ordered the withdrawal and ▓destruction of all pork products produced since September 1st. But Agriculture Minister Br▓endan Smith says the government decided not to ▓recall a

ny Irish beef products at home or abroad because the level and extent of dioxin found so far in cattle is much lower.Smith says the ca


house newly built in her village, 40 kilometers away from the base camp of the mountain, however, is poised to prov▓ide a new way of living by reducing local residents' dependency on cattle dung for warmth on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Every year, Yuzhen's eight-member ▓family burns 300 sacks, or 2,000 kilograms, ▓of dried cattle dung. Half of them are bought from others or at the market. Sometimes, they collect wood or turf to supplement energy s▓upplies, but the amount is quickly decreasing due to the deteriorating surroundings. Sandsto▓rms, for example, are more frequently seen than before in Yu▓zhen's village, even in the weather-favor▓able summer. Cattle dung is a cheap option, but it contributes to pollution and is not very efficient. "In winter, the inside temperature drops to below four d▓egrees centigrade at midnight," Yuzhen said.  Israel has briefly eased its tight blockade of the Gaza Strip to ship in t▓housands of cattle ahead of a major Muslim holiday. Eid al-Adha, which literally means "the festival of the sacrifice", will be celebrated later this month.Beef is the central food to the traditional Muslim feast of Eid al-Adha.But the price is now very high in

ameya, Resident of Gaz▓a, said, "We used to come to the butche▓r asking how much the meat costs. He used to answer 20 shek▓els. That's a bit over five US dollars. So we bought three or four kilograms. But today it's 60 shekels a kilo. So we can only buy 250 grams."The price hike is attributed to Israel's blockade. It was imposed on the coast▓al territory after Hamas seized power there in ▓June, 2007.Generally, only humanitarian aid and limited commercial goods are allowed in.Israeli farmers have not been able to ▓export their cattle to Gaza for the past few years.Farmers welcomed the government's decision t▓o briefly ease the blockade and allow cattle to be shipped in for the Muslim holiday.Tziki Kimmelman, Israeli Farmer, said, "This transfer is a gesture for the Pa▓lestinian holiday. We will ship 7-thousand cows, just like the agriculture minister promised. We really hope that we can send all of them,▓ because things are very hard for all


We have large numbers of cattle in Is▓rael and we've got nothing to do with them if we can't send them to Gaza."The move could lower beef prices, but only for a short period. Butchers say they could offer r▓egular price cuts if Israel allows cattl▓e in more frequently. Population: 1.11 mill▓ionMajor area of distribution: HainanLanguage: ▓LiReligion: PolytheismHainan, China's second ▓largest island after Taiwan, is the home of the Li ethnic group with a population of▓ about 1.11 million. Most of them live in ▓and around Tongze, capital of the Hainan Li▓-Miao Autonomous Prefecture, and Baoting, Ledong,▓ Dongfang and other counties under its jurisdiction; others live among people of the Han and Hui et▓hnic groups in other pa

rts of the island.Lying ▓at the foot of the Wuzhi Mountai

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